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Basil      

Ocimum basilicum

Basil is a member of the Ocimum family. Its botanical name is Ocimum basilicum. The scientific name epithet basilicum means 'royal or king-like'.

Basil originates from India where it is considered sacred to the Gods. Basil is a tender low-growing herb that is grown as a perennial in warm, tropical climates. It thrives in hot weather, but behaves as an annual if there is any chance of a frost. Basil’s pungent leaves are delicious in tomato, cheese, egg and fish dishes.

Blooms normally display as a colour very similar to   White and   Palatinate purple and   Floral white. When mature, they grow to 2.0 cm (0.78 inches imperial) in diameter.The mature flowers have an approximate petal count of 2. Leaves usually appear in   Android robot green and   Grade 1 Paint Green colour. It is a flowering edible herb / flower that typically grows as an annual/perennial, which is defined as a plant that can matures and completes its lifecycle over the course of one year or more. Basil is known for growing with a forb-like habit to a height of approximately 45.0 cm (that's 1.46 feet in imperial). This plant tends to bloom in early summer and be ready for harvest in mid summer. This plant is a great attractor for butterflies and bees, so if you are looking to attract wildlife Basil is a great choice. Popular varieties of Basil include: Sweet, Genovese, Italian Large Leaf, Cinnamon and Purple.

Basil is said to originate in India.

Basil is normally fairly low maintenance and quite easy to grow, as long as a level of basic care is provided throughout the year. Being aware of the basic soil, sun and water preferences will result in a happier and healthier plant.

This plant info is provided by the myfolia gardener's wiki. All details about Basil have been kindly provided by our members.

How to grow Basil

  • Full Sun

    +
  • Medium

To produce high quality basil, grow it in full sun in warm, well-drained soil.
Pinch or cut the leaves off as required, but always from the top. When the plants begin to produce flowers, pinch those out as soon as possible to encourage more leafy growth. Thin to strongest plants.
If growing Basil in containers or indoor pots then add a small amount of fertilizer every month or so.
Water every week (more often if growing in outdoor containers or indoors).
When watering your Basil make sure to water at the base of the plant avoiding showering the leaves and stems.

Basil is an annual and its goal is to flower. If you let it, it will cease leaf production. It is best to cut the entire plant back by half from the top when it is mature and starting to form buds to encourage is to grow more leaves—merely pinching the tips will cause it to simply try and grow more flowering branches.

Try to plant in a location that enjoys full sun and remember to water moderately. As a guideline, Basil does best between USDA Hardiness Zones 4 and 10. Basil needs a loamy, sandy and silty soil with a ph of 5.5 to 7.0 (weakly acidic soil - neutral soil). Basil is generally regarded as a tender plant, so it is really important to plant out well after your last frost date.

Growing Basil from seed

Cover with finely sieved compost. Can be planted indoors.

Sow at a depth of approx. 0.12 inches (0.3 cm) and aim for a distance of at least 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) between Basil plants. For optimal germination, soil temperature should be a minimum of 15°C / 59°F.

By our calculations*, you should look at sowing Basil about 20 days before your last frost date .

Transplanting Basil

Most basils are tender annuals which are easy to grow, but are very susceptible to cold weather. They should be planted in late spring after all danger of frost is past, soil temperature is warm, and nighttime temperatures are above 15 C or 60 F. Can be grown in containers in full sun. Temperatures below 8 C or 45 F can kill the plants.

There are a very few perennial types of basil types: African Blue basil (O. kilimandscharicum × basilicum) a sterile hybrid, and Thai holy basil (o. Sanctum, O. tenuiflorum) are two popular types of perennial basil

Basil is tender, so ensure you wait until all danger of frost has passed in your area before considering planting outside - as a guideline, the minimum temperature outside should be approximately 15°C / 59°F.

By our calculations*, you should look at planting out Basil about 40 days after your last frost date.

Harvesting Basil

To preserve basil, you can either dry or freeze it.

Air drying Basil
To dry basil without a dehydrating machine, simply hang upside-down in small bunches in a cool, dark place. check that they are ready by crumbling a little in your fingers – if ready put into small airtight jars to keep until use.

Freezing Basil:
Pack ice cube trays with basil leaves and then cover with hot water (the hot water should blanch the basil quickly and keep the colour nice and green). Place in the freezer for at least 24 hours, then place in freezer bags and store to defrost when required.
Alternatively, blend basil leaves in a food processor with oil to a smooth paste consistency, then pour into ice cube trays. After 24 hours, remove from the trays and place into freezer bags and store frozen until required.

After the seedlings have their first six leaves, prune to above the second set.

Every time a branch has six to eight leaves, repeat pruning the branches back to their first set of leaves. The best time to harvest is right when the plant starts to bud (before the flowers bloom). Basil is most pungent when it is fresh.3

Seed Saving Basil

Basil does self-pollinate, although cross-pollination with other basil plants via insects will typically produce stronger offspring. If you are pinching basil flowers off, by mid-August allow some plants to go to flower. Harvest the seed when the flower stalk is dry.

Companion plants for Basil

These plants have been known to grow well alongside Basil so consider planting:

chamomile, anise, apricot1, asparagus1, cucumber1, fennel1, tomato1

  • Basil loves Tomato

    Planting basil with tomatoes improves the flavour of tomatoes.

  • Basil loves Potato

  • Basil loves Asparagus

  • Basil loves Bean

  • Basil loves Beetroot

  • Basil loves Anise

    It will boost the essential oils production of basil

  • Basil loves Sweet pepper

    General soil requirements are the same.

Repellent plants for Basil

These plants will not grow well with Basil so avoid planting these within close proximity:

Sage, Rue1 (sweet and bitter do not go well together), swiss chard1

Common Basil problems

These problems, diseases and pests are known to affect Basil plants:

Dampening off – seed thinly and wide and guard against humid conditions.

Japanese beetles will do a lot of damage; remove beetles by hand.

Aphids (especially indoors), white fly, slugs, beetles. Spray both sides of leaves for aphids. Try using a sharp mulch to deter slugs. Crushed egg shells and used coffee grounds may also deter slugs/snails.

  • Black Spot

    Fungal infection.

  • Aphids

    Also known as greenfly and blackfly, Aphids are a common sap-sucking garden pest.

  • White Fly

    Small, white winged insects measuring between 1-2 mm (1/16th")

  • Damping off

  • Slugs

    A snail without a shell. A mollusc with an elongated, soft body with a shiny appearance due to the slime coating.

  • Slugs

    A snail without a shell. A mollusc with an elongated, soft body with a shiny appearance due to the slime coating.

  • Japanese Beetles

  • Grasshoppers

  • Root rot

    Fungal diseases that cause decay and rotting of the roots and premature plant death - commonly due to overwatering and/or poor drainage.

  • Basil shoot blight

    Fungal diseases that cause leaf spotting and premature loss of leaves.

Basil Etymology

The word basil means “king” in Greek – it is believed to have grown above the spot where St. Constantine and Helen discovered the Holy Cross.

Believed to be an abbreviation of Basilikon phuton, Greek for “kingly herb”

Basil Folklore & Trivia

Jewish folklore says that basil adds strength while fasting.
The Oxford English Dictionary quotes speculations that basil may have been used in “some royal unguent, bath, or medicine”.

Said to promote peace and harmony between lovers. A container of basil placed outside a woman’s window is said to attract courtship.

put a pot of basil on the balcony as a tacit sign that you are ready to receive a suitor 1

Whoever has a better vocabulary of cuss words let him/her plant the basil…because it will only grow if cussed out properly1

In Ethiopia, it’s grown as a culinary herb and is also used to treat stomach upset, colic, scabies, coughs, asthma, irritated and inflamed bowel conditions, arthritis, and menstrual problems.3

Other names for Basil

Sweet Basil, Basilic, Basil custom blend

Ocimum basilicum L.

Misspellings: Sweet, Sweat, Sweat Basil

Latest Basil Reviews

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Basil care instructions

How long does Basil take to grow?

These estimates for how long Basil takes to sprout, grow and harvest are from real observations from real gardeners, right around the world. Start logging and journaling your observations to participate!

When should I plant Basil?

Our when to plant Basil estimates are relative to your last frost date. Enter your frost dates and we'll calculate your sowing and planting dates for you!

Footnotes

Basil Forums

  • Basil

    A group dedicated to all subspecies of the basil plant. With such an ease of growth, wide tolerance of growing tolera...

    12 members / 5 topics

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